مجله اینترنتی دیتاسرا
امروز پنجشنبه ۱۰ آذر ۱۴۰۱

دستورالعمل طراحی و محاسبه سیستم روشنایی Lighting Calculation Procedure



مجموعه دستورالعمل های ارائه شده در دیتاسرا شامل ضوابط و مراحل تحلیل و طراحی سازه های گوناگون صنعتی و بر اساس الزامات مندرج در آیین نامه های معتبر داخلی و خارجی بوده که به پشتوانه تجارب کسب شده در مگا پروژه های مختلف توسط جمعی از مهندسین متخصص کشور به رشته تحریر درآمده اند.
امیدواریم دانش و تجربه بکارگرفته شده در تهیه این مجموعه مورد توجه مهندسان، مجریان و علاقمندان گرامی قرار گیرد.

محتوای فایل به زبان انگلیسی می باشد.

 No. of pages: 30

 Part of the instruction:

Table of Contents

1 Scope .......... 4
2 Objective .......... 4
3 Definitions .......... 4
4 Overview .......... 5
5 General Requirements .......... 5
6 Procedure .......... 5
6.1 Prerequisite Documents .......... 5
6.2 Operating environment .......... 6
6.3 Measurement units .......... 6
6.4 Lighting design .......... 6
6.4.1 General Criteria.......... 6
6.4.2 Lighting levels .......... 6
6.4.3 Reflection factor .......... 10
6.4.4 Uniformity factors.......... 11
6.4.5 Special requirements .......... 11
6.4.6 Lighting methods .......... 11
6.4.7 Selection of lamp types .......... 11
6.4.8 Discharge lighting fixtures requirement .......... 12
6.4.9 Control gears .......... 13
6.4.10 Supports - Lighting fixtures positioning .......... 14
6.4.11 Calculations .......... 14
6.5 Lighting systems .......... 20
6.5.1 Normal light .......... 20
6.5.2 Emergency lighting .......... 21
6.5.3 Safety light .......... 21
6.5.4 Distribution criteria .......... 21
6.5.5 Control system .......... 22
6.5.6 Lighting fittings power factor correction .......... 22
6.5.7 Light sockets .......... 22
6.5.8 Air Craft Warning .......... 23
6.6 Lighting Soft wares .......... 26
6.6.1 Light Guide (Victor) .......... 26
6.6.2 Easy-Lux (Mazi Noor) .......... 27
6.6.3 Calculux (Philips) .......... 27
6.6.4 Chalmit .......... 28
6.6.5 DIALUX .......... 28
6.6.6 OUTPUT .......... 31


1 Scope
The purpose of this document is to give guidance on various kinds of lighting system design and calculation, including convenience outlet and air craft warning light in the unit/building facility in accordance with the project specifications and associated international standards.


2 Objective Objective
The purpose of this document is to give guidance on various kinds of lighting system design and calculation, including convenience outlet and air craft warning light in the unit/building facility in accordance with the project specifications and associated international standards.


3 Definitions Definitions
Project lead engineer is the lead engineer directly responsible for the performance of activates of the project, set forth by the project manager and/or lead of the department.
Engineer is the engineer responsible to calculate and design under the supervision of the project lead engineer.
Lighting system terminology as per following standards:
CEI Normative references
CENELEC Normative references
IEC Recommendations
IEE Recommendations
API Normative references
IPS Iran petroleum standard
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
NPCS National Petrochemical Company Standards


4 Overview
Lighting system layout provides the information that in different areas and different levels how the lighting fixtures are located and how they are connected to each other. This information generally is prepared in the following different categories:
Normal lights
Street lights
Emergency lights
Safety lights
Lighting calculation(Indoor, Outdoor, and street lighting)
Convenience outlets
Welding outlets
Air craft warning lights


5 General Requirements General Requirements General RequirementsGeneral Requirements General Requirements
The project lead engineer is responsible to obtain and ensure that the engineer uses the latest revision/edition of the mentioned documents.
This procedure will be valid when the “Description” in the title block is defined as “issued for approval” and responsible individuals duly sign the signing cells in the title block.


6 Procedure Procedure Procedure

6 .1 Prerequisite Documents
Plot plans
Buildings layouts
Contract Document
3D View of processing area
Architectural layout for buildings
6 .2 Operating environment
The components of the electric lighting system shall be designed and manufactured according to the environmental conditions of the place of installation specified in the Project Documentation.
6 .3 Measurement units
The measurements units adopted shall comply with the International System (I.S.). Measures in inches are generally allowed for the diameters of conduits and fittings.
6 .4 Lighting design
6 .4 .1 General Criteria
The lighting systems shall be designed and fabricated in order to guarantee:
The required type, quality, reliability of operation and lighting levels
Safety for people and objects
Possibility of improvements/expansion
Simple running and maintenance
The design shall be also developed taking into account installation costs, expenses and maintenance costs.

مشخصات

مشخصات

تاریخ درج: ۱۴۰۱/۴/۱۵ منبع: دیتاسرا

خرید آنلاین

خرید آنلاین

عنوان: Lighting Calculation Procedure حجم: 3.04 مگابایت قیمت: 59500 تومان رمز فایل (در صورت نیاز): www.datasara.com نرم افزارهای مورد نیاز: winrar - adobe acrobat - office

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Table of Contents
Section
Page
1 Scope .................................................................................................................... 4
2 Objective .............................................................................................................. 4
3 Definitions ............................................................................................................ 4
4 Overview .............................................................................................................. 5
5 General Requirements ....................................................................................... 5
6 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 5
6.1 Prerequisite Documents ............................................................................................ 5
6.2 Operating environment ............................................................................................. 6
6.3 Measurement units .................................................................................................... 6
6.4 Lighting design ......................................................................................................... 6
6.4.1 General Criteria............................................................................................................. 6
6.4.2 Lighting levels .............................................................................................................. 6
6.4.3 Reflection factor ......................................................................................................... 10
6.4.4 Uniformity factors....................................................................................................... 11
6.4.5 Special requirements ................................................................................................... 11
6.4.6 Lighting methods ........................................................................................................ 11
6.4.7 Selection of lamp types ............................................................................................... 11
6.4.8 Discharge lighting fixtures requirement ..................................................................... 12
6.4.9 Control gears ............................................................................................................... 13
6.4.10 Supports - Lighting fixtures positioning ..................................................................... 14
6.4.11 Calculations ................................................................................................................ 14
6.5 Lighting systems ..................................................................................................... 20
6.5.1 Normal light ................................................................................................................ 20
6.5.2 Emergency lighting ..................................................................................................... 21
6.5.3 Safety light .................................................................................................................. 21
6.5.4 Distribution criteria ..................................................................................................... 21
6.5.5 Control system ............................................................................................................ 22
6.5.6 Lighting fittings power factor correction .................................................................... 22
6.5.7 Light sockets ............................................................................................................... 22
6.5.8 Air Craft Warning ....................................................................................................... 23
6.6 Lighting Soft wares ................................................................................................. 26
6.6.1 Light Guide (Victor) ................................................................................................... 26
6.6.2 Easy-Lux (Mazi Noor) ................................................................................................ 27
6.6.3 Calculux (Philips) ....................................................................................................... 27
6.6.4 Chalmit ....................................................................................................................... 28
6.6.5 DIALUX ..................................................................................................................... 28
6.6.6 OUTPUT ..................................................................................................................... 31
1 Scope
The purpose of this document is to give guidance on various kinds of lighting system design and calculation, including convenience outlet and air craft warning light in the unit/building facility in accordance with the project specifications and associated international standards.
2 Objective Objective
The purpose of this document is to give guidance on various kinds of lighting system design and calculation, including convenience outlet and air craft warning light in the unit/building facility in accordance with the project specifications and associated international standards.
3 Definitions Definitions
Project lead engineer is the lead engineer directly responsible for the performance of activates of the project, set forth by the project manager and/or lead of the department.
Engineer is the engineer responsible to calculate and design under the supervision of the project lead engineer.
Lighting system terminology as per following standards:
CEI Normative references
CENELEC Normative references
IEC Recommendations
IEE Recommendations
API Normative references
IPS Iran petroleum standard
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization
NPCS National Petrochemical Company Standards
4 Overview
Lighting system layout provides the information that in different areas and different levels how the lighting fixtures are located and how they are connected to each other. This information generally is prepared in the following different categories:
Normal lights
Street lights
Emergency lights
Safety lights
Lighting calculation(Indoor, Outdoor, and street lighting)
Convenience outlets
Welding outlets
Air craft warning lights
5 General Requirements General Requirements General RequirementsGeneral Requirements General Requirements
The project lead engineer is responsible to obtain and ensure that the engineer uses the latest revision/edition of the mentioned documents.
This procedure will be valid when the “Description” in the title block is defined as “issued for approval” and responsible individuals duly sign the signing cells in the title block.
6 Procedure Procedure Procedure
6 .1 Prerequisite Documents
Plot plans
Buildings layouts
Contract Document
3D View of processing area
Architectural layout for buildings
6 .2 Operating environment
The components of the electric lighting system shall be designed and manufactured according to the environmental conditions of the place of installation specified in the Project Documentation.
6 .3 Measurement units
The measurements units adopted shall comply with the International System (I.S.). Measures in inches are generally allowed for the diameters of conduits and fittings.
6 .4 Lighting design
6 .4 .1 General Criteria
The lighting systems shall be designed and fabricated in order to guarantee:
The required type, quality, reliability of operation and lighting levels
Safety for people and objects
Possibility of improvements/expansion
Simple running and maintenance
The design shall be also developed taking into account installation costs, expenses and maintenance costs.
6 .4 .2 Lighting levels
Unless otherwise specified in the Data Sheet/Contract, the minimum lighting levels listed in TABLE 1 shall be provided.
The lighting levels of plant areas or rooms not listed here below or rooms in which there is special need personnel shall be defined case by case depending on their similarity to the table values or by referring to good engineering practices.
TABLE 1 - Lighting levels
LOCATION
ELEV. (1)
UNIFORMITY FACTORY
Emax
Emin
NORMALOPERATION
Emed (lux)
SAFETY
Emed (lux)
Horizontal level
Vertical level
PROCESS AREAS
Platforms,
operative
footbridges,
paths,
exchangers
separators,
furnace, cooling tower
Aligned pumps
Manifold
Shaft termination area
Compression area
Separation tank
Furnaces (burners)
Cooling towers
Local control panels
Single instruments
Local electric board
Normal stairs
Step irons
On-shore general area
Off-shore general area
NOTES:
1.T = Treading level,WL = Working level; EL = Eye level; BL = Bank level.
2.The initial lighting is only given as an indication.
3.The Exerc. Lighting means after 100 working hours.
4.The lighting during operations indicates the average value referring to the plant life period including
maintenance and lamps replacements, based on a maintenance and depreciation coefficient which
depends on the type of lamps and lighting body
TABLE 1 (continued) - Lighting levels
LOCATION
UNIFORMITY FACTORY
Emax Emin
NORMALOPERATION
Emed (lux)
SAFETY
Emed (lux)
Horizontal level
Vertical level
PROCESS OPERATION
AREAS
(continued)
Platforms, operative footbridges,
boiler paths and various
equipment
Aligned pumps
Compressors area
Power generation area
Internals of bonnets for gas turbines and diesel oil engines.
Furnaces (burners)
Local control panels
Single instruments
Local electric boards
Normal stairs
Step irons
Tanks store
Tanks stairs and footbridges
Tank truck loading (general area)
Tank truck loading
(at loading point)
Racks
CONTROL ROOMS
Instruments Panel
Control desks
Instruments panel (back)
Control rooms general area
Computers room general area
Measures room
SUBSTATIONS AND ELECTRICCABINS
Switches area (outdoor)
Substations general area
Cabin electric boards (front)
Cabin electric boards (back)
Batteries room
Electric cabin general area
Cables room
NOTES:
1.T = Treading level, WL = Working level; EL = Eye level; BL = Bank level.
2.The initial lighting is only given as an indication.
3.The Exerc. Lighting means after 100 working hours.
4.The lighting during operations indicates the average value referring to the plant life period including
maintenance and lamps replacements, based on a maintenance and depreciation coefficient which
depends on the type of lamps and lighting body
TABLE 1 (continued) - Lighting levels
POS.
LOCATION
ELEV. (1)
UNIFORMITY FACTORY
NORMALOPERATION
Emed (lux)
SAFETY
Emed (lux)
Horizontal level
Vertical level
BUILDING - OFFICES
LABORATORIES INFORMARIES
External entrance Main entrance Entrances and corridors Stairs
Manager office
Offices Draughtsman rooms
Offices with accounting machines Laboratories
Infirmary Conference room Files
Lifts cabin
STORES -WORKSHOPS
External large volume stores Internal large volume stores
Storages in container, on shelves etc. Storage of smallest parts
Distribution counters
Tough works
Medium works on machine tools Bridge crane operation area Fine mechanics
Electric workshop and works on plate
Electronic workshop and instrumentation
ACCOMMODATIONS - CANTEENS RECREATIONAL - ROOMS
Bedrooms, beds Individual bed light Canteen, bar Kitchen
Changing rooms, showers,WCs Cinema, TV room
Reading room, classrooms Worship sites
5.T = Treading level, WL = Working level; EL = Eye level; BL = Bank level.
6.The initial lighting is only given as an indication.
7.The Exerc. Lighting means after 100 working hours.
8.The lighting during operations indicates the average value referring to the plant life period including
maintenance and lamps replacements, based on a maintenance and depreciation coefficient which
depends on the type of lamps and lighting body
TABLE 1 (continued) - Lighting levels
POS. LOCATION
ELEV.
UNIFORMITY
FACTORY
Emax
Emin
NORMALOPERATION
Emed (lux) SAFETY
Emed (lux)
Horizontal level Vertical level
Init. Exerc. Init. Exerc.
LARGE AREAS - ROADS
Boundary walls, fiscal enclosures Boundary
walls, normal enclosures Motor vehicles
parking
Lorries parking spaces
Roads with light pedestrian traffic
Roads with intense pedestrian traffic
Yard / Building site
VARIOUS SITES
FIRE brigades Garages (general area) Fire
Brigades Garages (repair area) Repair
garage
Aircrafts Hangar
Boilers room
NOTES:
1. T = Treading level, WL = Working level; EL = Eye level; BL = Bank level.
2. The initial lighting is only given as an indication.
3. The Exterc. lighting means after 100 working hours.
4. The lighting during operations indicates the average value referring to the plant life period including
maintenance and lamps replacements, based on a maintenance and depreciation coefficient which
depends on the type of lamps and lighting body
6 .4 .3 Reflection factor
The reflection factor is the ratio of reflected light to incident light. Here are some typical
reflection factors:
Material Reflection factor
clear glass 6 ... 8%
prismatic glass 5 ... 20%
plaster 70 ... 80%
Zbrick, red, new 10 ... 15%
cement/concrete, untreated 20 ... 30%
wood, light 30 ... 60%
wood, dark 10 ... 15%
6 .4 .4 Uniformity factors
The general lighting uniformity shall be calculated as the ratio between mean and maximum lighting relevant to the area in question.
Ug = Emean
E min
The maximum uniformity values that can be foreseen are indicated in TABLE 1.
6 .4 .5 Special requirements
The lamps and lighting fixtures shall be chosen, positioned and oriented so as to keep within the limits of good practice any shadows, direct, indirect and reflected glares as well as stroboscopic effects.
The positioning and orientation of the lighting fixtures shall be as even as possible and thoroughly studied in order to avoid the above mentioned phenomena, especially when narrow beam (< 150) and medium beam (150- 300) projectors are used. When required, the lighting fixtures shall be provided with opaque or semi-transparent screens or refractors.
6 .4 .6 Lighting methods
Unless otherwise specified in the Specification, lighting for onshore plant shall be prepared as general lighting. Other disciplines such as instrument and piping shall determine the exact points for local lighting.
6 .4 .7 Selection of lamp types
Lamps shall be used that have a high light efficiency, that are reduced in size according to their power, that are resistant to voltage and temperature changes, and that have a good color rendering.
Normally, depending on the various applications and in normal environmental conditions, the types of lamps indicated in TABLE 2 shall be used.
TABLE 2- Type of lamps and their use
TYPE
POWER (W)
APPLICATION
LIGHTINGSYSTEM
REF. NOTES
Incandescence
25~100
Civil and industrial building
Normal Emergency
Safety
On-shore and off-
Normal
shore industrial
Emergency
Plants
Safety
Fluorescence
18, 36
Civil and industrial building
Normal Emergency Safety
On-shore and off- shore industrial
Plants
Normal Emergency
Safety
Mercury vapors
125, 250
On-shore and off- shore industrial plants
Normal Emergency
High pressure sodium vapor
125~1,000
General outdoor areas (roads, yards, tanks, etc.)
Normal Emergency
NOTES:
1.In particular applications.
2.If necessary to guarantee minimum lighting levels in case of lamps that are kept on for long periods.
3.As (2) if required in the project.
4.For supply from DC centralized systems (battery system and battery-charger).
5. In exceptional cases and for specific applications.
6 .4 .8 Discharge lighting fixtures requirement
The power in watts indicated on the Fluorescent and Discharge lamps does not include the power dissipated in the ballast.
In Fluorescent lamps, the current is given by:
Ia = Pballast +Pn
U × cosφ
Where
U= The voltage applied to the lamp, Complete with its related equipment.
Pn=the power in watts indicated on the tube of a fluorescent lamp
Cosø = 0.43 with no power factor correction. Cosø = 0.86 with power factorcorrection. Cosø = 0.96 with electronic ballast.
If no power-loss value is indicated for the ballast a figure of 25% of Pn may be used
Because of the practical situation, it is recommended that no power factor correction consider for current calculation and lighting cable sizing.
In Discharge lamps, the current is given by tables which each manufacture give it, these lamps have a long start-up time during which the current Ia is greater than the nominal current In. you can see a sample table of power and current demands that are given for
different types of lamp .
TABLE 3 – Current Demand of Discharge Lamps
POWER DEMAND
(W) at 230V
CURRENT In (A)
STARTING
LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY LUMENS
(PerWatt)
corrected 230V
Period (Min.)
High Pressure Sodium Vapor
Low-Pressure Sodium Vapor
Mercury Vapor +Metal Halide
(Metal iodide)
Mercury Vapor +Fluorescent
Substance (fluorescent Bulb)
NOTES:
1- These lamps are sensitive to voltage dips. They extinguish if the voltage falls to less than 50% of their nominal voltage and will not re-ignite before cooling for approximately 4 minutes.
2- Sodium Vapor Low-Pressure lamps have a high-output efficiency which is superior to that of all their sources. However, use of these lamps is restricted by the fact that the yellow-orange color emitted makes color recognition practically impossible.
6 .4 .9 Control gears
All discharge lamps need special control gear to limit the current and to ensure they ignite.
Two type control gears are available, conventional and Electronic Control Gear.
ECGs are protected against excessive mains voltages and incorrect connections; they shall be shut down against component fault, lamp failure and no load operation. ECGs (Electronic Control Gear) shall meet certain basic requirements in terms of quality and reliability as follow:
a)Compatibility with the specific needs of the lamp
b)Electromagnetic compatibility
c)Good radio standard such as EN 55015, VDE 0875
d)Low self-warming
e)Harmonics met standard as IEC 555-2, EN 60929, EN 61047, VDE 0712part 23/25)
6 .4 .10 Supports - Lighting fixtures positioning
Unless otherwise required in the specific job documentation, the supports for the lighting fixtures shall be chosen as follows:
6 .4 .10 .1 Lighting Pole
Fixed or overturning pole type. Maximum over ground height 15 m for flood lighting.
2.5 m lighting pole for illuminating of platforms & stairways.
Particular requirements for enclosures lighting systems, when included, shall be specified in the Data Sheet.
6 .4 .11 Calculations
6 .4 .11 .1 Indoor lighting
The following steps used for indoor illumination level calculations by “Room Cavity Ratio” (RCR) method.
Step 1:
Determine dimension of room:
Room Length: L
Room Breadth: W
Room Area: A=LxW
Room Height: H
Working plan Height: H r
Suspend Height: H S
Step 2:
Determine RCR
RCR= 5 x (H – Hr – Hs)(L+W)
Step 3:
Determine MF (Maintenance Factor) for clean, average & dirty room is respective 0.8, 0.7 & 0.6
Step 4: Determine Reflectance coefficients of Ceiling, Walls & Floor percentage and Determine effective ceiling or floor cavity reflectance by using following coefficients and relative tables that mention in the lighting manual books or vendor catalogues.
Ceiling Cavity Ratio:
CCR=5 x Hs x L + W
L x W
Floor Cavity Ratio:
FCR=5 x Hr x L + W
L x W
Step 5: Determine LL (lumen of desire fixture)
Step 6: Determine CU (Coefficients of utilization) from CU tables by vendor catalogues.
Step 7: Determine E (required illumination level relative room by lighting standards)
Step 8: Determine total number of needed fixtures:
N = E ×A LL × CU × MF
Step 9: Round up number of fixture
Step 10: Determine the best symmetrical arrangement for the distribution of illumination.
6 .4 .11 .2 Outdoor lighting
6.4.11.2.1 Point method
The following steps used for outdoor illumination level calculations in point by point method.
Step 1: Determine point where the illumination level shall be calculated say the point is “A”
Step 2: Determine lamp candle from photometric of product catalogue.
Step 3: Calculate E at point “A” by following formula,
EA = N x I x cos θ x MF D2 = H2 + G2
= N x I x cos3 θ x MF
Where
E= Initial illumination level required [Lux]
I= Luminous intensity of the lighting fixture in the radiation direction [cd / klm]
N= Total lumens of lighting fixture [klm]
G= Distance of point “A” from point “P” [m]
H= vertical height of lighting fixture from designated plane [m]
Θ= Angle between point “P” and “A”
[degree] MF Maintenance Factor
Step 4: Compare the calculation result E with required illumination level. if the calculation result (E) is lesser than requirement, add another lighting fixture or make the distance of fixtures closer. Do step 1 to 3 and check the result again.
Step 5: Calculation finishes when calculation result E were bigger than requirement illumination level.
6.4.11.3 Street Lighting
6.4.11.3.1 Design Criteria
The most important quality criteria in road lighting from the point of view of both visual performance and visual comfort are:
Luminance level
Luminance uniformity
Degree of glare limitation
6.4.11.3.2 Lighting Arrangements
There are three basic types of lighting arrangement that are recognized for road in the Petrochemical plants:
Single-Sided
This type of arrangement, in which all the luminaries are located on one side of theroad, is used only when the width of the road is equal to, or less than, the mountingheight of the luminaries.
The luminance of the road surface at the side remote from the luminaries is inevitablylower than that on the same side as the luminaries.
Staggered
This type of arrangement, in which the luminaries are located on either side of theroad in a staggered, or zigzag, arrangement, is used mainly when the width of the roadis between 1 and 1.5 times the mounting height of the luminaries. Very carefulattention should be paid to the uniformity of the luminance on the road surface-alternate bright and dark patches can produce an unpleasant zigzag effect.
Opposite
This type of arrangement, with the luminaries located opposite one another, is used mainly when the width of the road is greater than 1.5 times the mounting height of the luminaries.
6.4.11.4 Luminance Calculations
The following steps shall be used for lumen lighting illumination level calculation:
Step 1: Determine the following values:
WRoadway width curb to curb (m)
HLighting pole height (m)
NFixture lumen from catalog of manufacturer (lumens)
EAverage illumination level required (lux)
LLF Light loss factor {LLF=LDDF x LLDF that LDDF “luminaire dirtdepreciation factor is a function of the in-service conditions and the type ofluminaire selected.” and LLDF “lamp lumen depreciation factor is the valuepublished by the lamp manufacturer.”}
Step 2: Determine X1, X2:
SSStreet side {W - Luminaire overhang}
HSHouse side {Luminaire overhang}
X1Ratio for street side
X2Ratio for house side
Step 3: From the coefficient of utilization curves roadway, shall be determined:
CU1 from X1 ratio
CU2 from X2 ratio
The calculation of total coefficient (CU) will be: CU=CU1+CU2
Step 4: Determine maximum distance between lighting poles:
When poles aren’t opposed side
When poles are opposed side
6.4.11.5 Light distribution uniform calculation:
From point by point method or by lighting soft ware’s such as “Mazi noor”, “Victor”,
“Glamox” extract the Emin , Emax, , Eaverage than
Emin should be > 1 And
Eaverage 3
Emin should be > 1
Emax 5
Otherwise calculation isn’t ok and should be changed luminaire mounting height or fixture type.
Greater heights shall be used to improve the uniformity of lighting and to reduce glare and shadows.
Lower heights shall be used in case of adverse environmental conditions such as fog for long periods etc.
6 .5 Lighting systems
6 .5 .1 Normal light
Unless otherwise specified in the specific job documentation, the supply for normal lighting shall be shunted directly in low voltage from the main distribution board (MDB) in substation and also such local lighting panel (LLP) in the plant.
The local boards to the lighting circuits shall be located as much as possible in beside position in respect of the loads to supply so as to keep the circuits length to a minimum.
The load on three-phase or three-phase with neutral circuits shall be uniformly distributed among the three phases.
The maximum permissible voltage drops in steady conditions shall be maximum %5, %3 from main distribution to local panel in area and %2 from local panel to each fixture. Unless lower values are required for the good running of the lamps during the start-up and the normal running phases.
6 .5 .2 Emergency lighting
In case of normal power supply failure, some fixture shall be fed up by emergency system. This will happen by considering separate panel for emergency system. These panels will be fed by normal system during the normal condition, when one failure occurs; these panels automatically switch to emergency system.
In buildings and process units 30% of the total lighting shall be considered as emergency lighting. In switch rooms, control room, and laboratory 50% of the installed lighting shall be considered as emergency lighting, unless otherwise specified in contract.
6 .5 .3 Safety light
In some special case that normal and also emergency system failed there should be some fixtures to provide minimum of illumination for safety of people. These lamps shall be fed from the emergency lighting panel.
These fixtures could be fed by two different methods:
Separated system:
These fixtures could be fluorescent type with battery, charger and control unit. In case of power loss built-in battery takes over the supply min. 2 hours, unless otherwise specified in contract. In this method one extra cable shall be considered for these fixtures in order to control and charging the battery.
Centralized system:
In this method all safety fixtures would be fed form one UPS. This UPS shall be design especially for lighting system.
6 .5 .4 Distribution criteria
General lighting (roads, yards, tanks area, etc.) : Single circuits (three-phase + neutral)
for individual zones or areas or areas to light up.
Lighting of process plants and services : Single circuits (three-phase + neutral
or single-phase depending on the required load)
Lighting of industrial areas and buildings : Single circuits (three-phase + neutral
or single-phase depending on the required load) up to the building local light board.
6 .5 .5 Control system
The lights shall be switched on and off manually in case of individual rooms inside buildings. The process area including staircases, columns and tank farms shall be switched on/off by photo-cell.
The street lights shall be switched on and off centrally by means of photo-cells. In order to permit the testing of lights, a manual (override) switch shall additionally be provided in the lighting distribution board.
6 .5 .6 Lighting fittings power factor correction
All mercury-or sodium-vapor, fluorescent lamps, and the relevant reactors shall be corrected at power factor 0.9 with condensers installed in each individual lighting body which will contain also the relevant reactors and fittings.
6 .5 .7 Light sockets
Socket outlets generally shall be provided with the facilities required by operation, inspection, maintenance and so on.
6.5.7.1 Welding sockets
Four pin sockets (3-phase & earth) 400V, 63A, industrial type, to be installed to connect three-phase users as welding machine, etc.
Unless otherwise specified the sockets shall be provided within 30m from any point of the PROCESS area.
At least one 63 A socket will be provided in each industrial building and inside main switchboards.
The sockets shall be max. Of 4 welding outlets connected to each feeder cable.
6.5.7.2 Convenience Outlets
Convenience outlets shall be provided for maintenance and general purpose use. Convenience outlets of 230V AC shall be provided at suitable location inside the PLANT so that to be available within max. 25m from any inspection point (manholes, reactors, towers, and etc.).
Sockets generally shall be three pin (phase, neutral & earth), 16A complete with plug.
Max. 8 outlets on each feeder that is connected to a molded case circuit breaker with earth leakage protection from lighting panel.
6 .5 .8 Air Craft Warning
6.5.8.1 Light Requirements
The Aircraft warning lights system shall be designed, manufactured and tested in according with the latest edition of IEC 529 and ICAO.
Unless otherwise specified, Medium Intensity Obstruction Light, Type B (Red color, flushing) shall be used in combination with intermediate light of Low Intensity Type B (Red color, fixed).
Aircraft warning light fixtures shall be constructed in accordance with applicable IEC standards.
An aircraft warning light control panel, approved by an internationally recognized authority for use with aviation obstacle lights, shall be provided. Aircraft warning light fixtures shall consist of two red lights. In case of one light failure, the other light shall be energized by automatic transfer. Light failure alarm shall be provided.
Multi LED Lamps used for aircraft warning lights shall be of long life type.
Power supply to the warning light shall be from emergency lighting distribution board. The lights shall be automatically controlled by a photo-electric control system. Warning light shall be suitable for operation at 230V, 50Hz.
Aircraft warning lights shall be applied to the structures or towers and stacks with height greater than 30m.
In case of towers and stacks, three red sets should be spaced at 120° around the stack at 30 m from the ground, so that the lights can be seen from all directions.
These lights shall be located not less than one meter from the top of the stack, directed downwards and shall be accessible from either the top landing platform or ladder.
Cabling to the warning lights shall be of a type designed to withstand the maximum surface temperature of the outside surface of the stack, if attached in the vicinity of the stack shell.
For structures four red sets should be located at a height of 30 m from the ground, one in each quadrant of structure, so that these lights can be seen from all directions.
In case of several structures, towers or stacks that are greater than 30m in height and horizontal distance between them is less than 45m, only the highest one should be considered as light requirement for aircraft warning.
For heights greater than 45m intermediate lights must be added as shown below.
Number of lights = N = Y(meters)
Unless otherwise specified in the Data Sheet/Contract each set shall consist of two 100 W, 230V long life red neon lamps.
Each light should be connected via an auxiliary relay normally accommodated in the associated control panel in such a way that only one of the lamps burns in normal operation and the second lamp automatically cuts in on failure of the first lamp.
In the case of boiler stack the top warning light should be placed between 1.5m to 3m below the top so as to minimize contamination/heat radiation of smoke etc.
Aircraft warning lights should be fed from emergency/ safety lighting panel.
In on-shore plants, the general lighting for outdoors areas, yards, tanks area etc. and, when required, for enclosures, shall be realized maximizing the use of floodlight towers.
The location of the floodlight towers, the types, number and orientation of floodlights shall be chosen so as to privilege the lighting of passage and work areas and areas which are critical for people safety.
If necessary and/or required in the specific job documentation, the general lighting shall be supplemented with local lighting.
The minimum enclosure protection for equipment shall be IP55 according to IEC 529, if they install in classified area shall be explosion proof.
6 .6 Lighting Soft wares
The most famous soft ware’s for lighting calculation are following ones:
Light Guide (Victor)
Easy-Lux (Mazi Noor)
Calculux (Philips)
Chalmit (Chalmit)
DIALUX
Each of them has some advantages and disadvantages and their usage depend on their type of application.
6 .6 .1 Light Guide (Victor)
The victor software enables you to set up project data on a room by room basis and carry out the following calculations:
Lumen design
Daylight design
Point to point design
Emergency lighting design
Rooms may be of any shaped and up to 99 rooms can be stored with eachproject.
Once a design for a room has been completed the results can be shown numerically, or as contour and intensity maps in 2D or 3D formats.
6 .6 .2 Easy-Lux (Mazi Noor)
This software is an easy-to-use but powerful lighting specification program. Simulations can be made for both indoor and outdoor applications, including the following:
Indoor calculations:
Quick Calculations
Point-by-point Calculations
Outdoor Calculations:
Sporting Areas
Tennis Courts
Basketball Courts
Volleyball Courts
Football Field
Football Field plus Athletics Track
Roadway Calculations :
Custom Horizontal Area
Building Exterior
6 .6 .3 Calculux (Philips)
The Calculux software enables you to calculate lighting system with different methods. This software can calculate for below areas:
Indoor area
Outdoor area
Street lighting
Once a design for a room or an area has been completed the results can be shown numerically -in complete table-, or as contour and intensity maps in 2D and 3D (isometric) formats.
6 .6 .4 Chalmit
The Chalmit software enables you to do different methods of calculation such as:
Indoor design
Outdoor design
Street lighting design
6 .6 .5 DIALUX
The Dialux software enables you to do different methods of calculation such as:
Indoor design
Outdoor design
Street lighting design
The Dialux user interface is divided into three main work areas.
CAD window
Project manager with Inspector
The Guide
The Project manager includes the Inspector and the respective tree structure (project, furniture, color, luminaire, and output).
6 .6 .5 .1 The Luminaire Selection
For each calculation by the software, the suitable luminaire should be selected. In this way the user data base is recommended. The user has the possibility to select those
luminaires from the various manufacturers’ PlugIns, which are regular used in the DIALux project.
6 .6 .5 .2 Maintenance Factor
The maintenance factor depends on the ambient conditions (already defined in the Property Page of the room), the mounting height (because of room index k is defined using mounting height), the hours of operation (insert at this point) and the lamp and luminaires maintenance interval (define also at this point).
New in DIALux 4 and upper version is the maintenance plan method tab. Here you can determine maintenance factors and set parameters for a maintenance plan, based on EN 12464-1 and CIE 97. The maintenance parameters of the inserted luminaire arrangements can be optimized to a target maintenance factor. It is possible for the user to use the maintenance factor as a consistent value for all luminaires in the room. The lighting designer is required, since the introduction of EN12464, to provide a maintenance plan for the lighting design. Now with DIALux 4 this is integrated into the lighting design workflow and is automatically provided.
6 .6 .5 .3 Insert and Edit Luminaires and Luminaire Arrangements
You can open the luminaire tree by clicking in The Guide Select Luminaires. In the luminaire tree you will see installed PlugIns under DIALux catalogues. With one double-click on a name of a manufacturer you can open a PlugIn. Under not installed PlugIns you can find the DIALux project partners, whose PlugIns are not yet installed. A double-click on the corresponding names of the manufacturers opens its internet page. There you can download the DIALux PlugIn. Additionally telephone numbers and e-mail addresses are displayed. At the bottom of the list the last used luminaires are always indicated. This can be up to 20 luminaires of different manufacturers.
Luminaire fields can be positioned either by selecting the Insert Luminaire Field option in The Guide or the Luminaire Arrangement Wizard à Field Arrangement option. If you select a room and then perform a right-click, the context menu for that room opens. Here you can also select the Insert à Field Arrangement option.
The Wizard sequentially queries all important parameters that must be entered. If you use one of the options with which the luminaire field is entered manually, the Inspector displays, in addition to the luminaire field, a Paste and a Cancel button.
6 .6 .5 .4 Working in Various Views
DIALux provides various views to assist you with your layout. You can open the various views via the toolbar illustrated. The button functions are, from left to right:
Open 3D view
Open ground plan view
Open side view
Open front view
Zoom to the overall view of the scene, for that DIALux zooms to theborderline of the room or exterior scene
Show previous / next light scene
Show dimming levels in CAD
Show maintenance factors in the CAD
Activate Project manager, DIALux shows the Project manager in addition toThe Guide
Tile windows horizontally
Tile windows vertically
In the menu file Settings, Customize, Toolbars you can activate more functions in the view’s or window’s toolbar.
6 .6 .5 .5 Street Valuation Fields in Exterior Scenes
A new calculation surface for exterior scenes to DIALux is added, which calculates the luminance distribution on a roadway for an observer:
The Street Valuation Field. This calculation considers exactly all luminaires and other objects placed in the exterior scene. Indirect light, e.g. reflections from facades, is not considered, shadowing through trees or buildings is. Because of the strict definitions of street lighting standards, the results of a Street Valuation Field should be used with extreme caution regarding the limitations of EN 13201.
DIALux positions the observers automatically according to the default of the EN. The observer is always 60m in front of the valuation field in the middle of the respective roadway, at a height of 1.5m above the ground.
DIALux 4.9 offers all the key parameters for positioning street luminaires.
First you choose the type of luminaire in the PlugIn of a manufacturer. After using the option “insert street arrangement” you can choose a luminaire from the list. you can specify the parameters for the arrangement to be optimized, like pole distance, height above working plane or light overhang.
6 .6 .6 OUTPUT
6 .6 .6 .1 Viewing Calculation Results
After a calculation has been completed, DIALux shows the 3D display of the room. Project output can be viewed before or after a calculation. The output types which are not affected by the calculation results can be viewed at any time, for example the project cover sheet, luminaire parts lists,luminaire coordinates, room coordinates etc. Most output types need to be calculated first. If one of these output types is opened when there are no results yet, DIALux enquires whether the calculation should be performed.
The user can generate and save frequently-used combinations of output types in DIALux. To do this, a folder that contains output must be selected in the output tree.
Start on the highest hierarchy level, i.e. the project. Select the project in the output tree, in this case project 1. If you wish to use a preset standard, select it from the Name list box. To generate a standard, check the output types which should be included in your standard. Please keep in mind that the list contains all output types, including those of lower hierarchy levels. For example, if you check the Isolines (E) output type in this hierarchy level, it is also checked in all lower hierarchical levels.
You can now select lower hierarchical levels and use a different output standard here. For example you can select Room 1 and select the Complete Documentation standard, which in this example describes a very extensive documentation. The other rooms are not affected by this change, as these still use the Short Documentation output standard which has previously been assigned to the project.
Thus you can influence the individual output subdirectories – thereby deviating from the global standard. Of course you additionally have the option of selecting the output types individually for every object in the output tree.
To use a user-defined output standard as default setting, select it from the Name list box and click on the As Standard button. In the list box the phrase Standard appears in brackets behind the corresponding name. To delete a user-defined standard, select it and click on Delete. After another standard has been selected from the list box the one deleted previously is not available anymore.
Outputs whose page icon is highlighted are immediately available. The output types which are not highlighted can only be obtained after the calculation has been done.
To view an output on the screen, double-click on the corresponding icon. To view multiple output types simultaneously, right-click an output icon and select open in New Window. You can view all types of output on the screen. The output types which have a tick made in the checkbox are printed or displayed as print preview when the File à Print or File à Print Preview commands are used.
The observer position used in the CAD is used for the output 3D rendering. You may save the 3D rendering as a *.jpg picture. Just move the rendering into the required position and select in the menu File, Export and Save CAD view as JPG. Here you can select a directory and enter a filename.

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